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Do you occasionally experience any of the following?

• Having to wait for 24 hours for a doctor to answer questions about your personal or family health.

• Sitting in the waiting from long after your set appointment time and then, wasting more time waiting in the exam room

• Hurried office questions that leave you with multiple questions• Being forced into an office examination when you know a phone call would have been sufficient.

If so, do not worry. You are not alone.

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Welcome to Dial a Home Doctor – Australian leading bulk-billed home visiting doctor service. As a patient of Dial a Home Doctor, your will always have a doctor who invest his or her time to know you and your family. In particular, you will enjoy the following benefits associated with hiring our home doctor?Immediate careNo dealing with personal assistance – your personal doctor will be readily available 24/7.
Communication: Reach your after hours doctor via secure mails, personal cell phone or arranged visits. Our doctors make all the effort to see you on the shortest time possible. When routine care or acute problems can be managed through a call, we will do so, thus, saving you more time.

Time: If you decide to work with our after hours doctor, your typical office visit will be a maximum of 30 minutes in most cases. We understand your time is precious and therefore, we offer a “no wait” waiting room for your enhanced convenience.

Personal Care: The current healthcare system in Australia can cause the head to spin! Our after hours doctor will do everything possible to ensure your walk through the maze of pre-approvals, referrals, and visits to other doctors will be as simple and stress-free as possible. We will provide you with all the required information, e-mail, and call specialists when necessary to make your experience good. Our doctors will be the quarterback of your health care team.

Problem Solving: At a dial a home doctor, our doctors are problem solvers. When new health complications related to health arise, they will set aside the necessary time to establish coordinated diagnosis and treatment. This time also allows them to manage a couple of complicated chronic health problems safely. Our doctors keep up-to-date with all the changing and new treatment options and guidelines.

Wellness Care :In order for you to age gracefully, you need to take proper care of your health – your most valuable asset. Our after-hours doctors are your health coaches and advisers; even when it would be hard for you to get the required medical care. Our package includes;

• A full health risk evaluation and physical exam

• Counseling on nutritional needs

• Fitness assessment and exercise prescription

• Detailed preventive cardiology assessment

• Proper diseases screenings and prevention

• 24/7 access to our website, blog and in-depth answers to your emails.

“Whole-istic” Treatment Options:Science is the backbone of medicine, and whenever possible, you healthcare should be based on quality and unbiased research. But medicine is also an art and doctors need to use their common sense and intuition in some cases. Our services are wholistic. Our after hours doctors appreciate that the wholeness that make us human is a combination of our psychology, biology and spirit.

They do not consider themselves to be alternative medicine doctors, but have become adept in filtering the thousands of alternative medical care options available. Some options have low risk, ideally high benefits and seem to be safe. Our doctors recommend them whenever appropriate.

Others are potentially harmful, snake oil, are often scientifically proven to offer no benefit.If you are searching for science-based home doctor who utilizes experience and acquired medical common sense to care for your overall well-being and filter what you hear from the media, our doctors are right for you.
National Care Network: Our after hours doctor are connected with a national care network of private physicians. If they feel your condition cannot be managed over the phone and a visit is not possible (maybe you are on travel), they can arrange for you to be seen by another doctor in their office. Most major cities are represented.

Visit flexibility: We fully understand that you have busy schedules that sometimes do not allow for weekday visits. We have weekend visits available as well. What more, since we do not depend on physical visits alone, phone calls are a great option too. Even for some complex illnesses.
If you have any question or you would like to book a free first time consultation, feel free to contact us. We are always happy to help and to answer any question you might have.

 

Building your dream home? Renovating? Good planning results in value for money and avoids costly rebuilds because of a change of mind, or missing out on energy-saving devices and designs.
Write a wish list of everything you want your house to have, and include qualities such as ‘light and airy’ as well as specifics. It’s more important how your home functions and makes you feel rather than how many square metres it is.
Designers recommend light, neutral colours for permanent finishes like tiles and bench-tops, with bolder accent colours for feature items like walls or decorative objects. By doing this, when you feel like a change you can update your style cost effectively.
Living area
The best living space flows from inside to outside, so design the outdoor living area as an extension of your lounge and kitchen -this doubles your living area and makes family life easier because children are much happier playing outside when they are close to where you are.
Considering energy-savings, make sure there are openings on more than one side of your living area to let cooling breezes flow throught in summer and reduce the use of air-conditioners. Generally place glass facing north to capture light for most of the day, and consider placing windows higher up to release hot air as it rises. Make sure windows are double-glazed with good seals to keep in winter warmth.
Kitchen
A good kitchen leaves room to move but is of a size that allow easy reach between different activities.
– Make sure it isn’t a thoroughfare.
– Allow for bench space between the sink and the cooktop, as this is the most convenient area to prepare food.
– Include drawers of differing depth under bench height rather than cupboards -drawers give easier access to items.
– Situate dishwashers near sinks to allow ease of loading. This also means plumbing is in one space and therefore saves money.
– Multi-bin sorters under sinks are a good idea – you’re able to separate rubbish for recycling straight away.
– For safety, have rounded bench-top corners and factor in a minimum of one lockable cupboard for harmful substances.
– The fridge uses more electricity than any other appliance, so choose one with a high energy star rating. Make sure to allow a gap around the fridge of at least 50mm for good ventilation.

5-Star Green Designing
Having rainwater tanks means you family can use pure water free from the many contaminants and additives present in the public supply. Consider the best place to locate tanks and wastewater systems, and integrate them with the design to avoid having them look like an ‘add-on’ later on.
Incorporate space for an outdoor washing line and also think about the best place for rubbish bins, recycling bins, worm farms or compost bins.
Use a mix of paving and planting, as too much concreting or paving can result in pooling of water and drainage problems. Consider ‘permeable’ paving that allows rain to seep down to the soil underneath.
When planting trees, be careful to situate them so in the future, their roots won’t cause damage to walls or footings.

If you want to see some great home designs, visit Bush and Beach.

 

Updating the look of your home should be pleasant and shouldn’t have you worried about using all your savings. Whether it is adding a few new pieces of furniture, some accessories or a new coat of paint, there are tons of ways to update the look of your house. To give you some ground to stand on, we have put together advice that will to help you save, while still creating some fantastic looks that are fun and affordable for every room of the house:

Bedroom
White furniture is a hot feature for the bedroom. It’s a clean look that’s easy to modify. If you want to keep it in clean colours, add some neutral tones or inject some brighter colours. This can be done easily by changing the colour of a pillow, lamp or a rug.

Floating shelves are also very inexpensive and can be a great update, and also increases your storage space.

Mirrors are also a superb way to furnishyour home for less. They can make rooms look bigger and brighter as well. A new painting or even a framed poster is a great way to make a quick and easy difference, without the hefty price tag.

Lounge & Dining
The Lounge and dining rooms in your home are usually the two areas which are paid the most attention to. Lounges and chairs are key to this area, especially when entertaining family and guests. Get the most out of your sofa by choosing a neutral colour that you can update with cushions, throw rugs or even by a brightly coloured rug.

Also consider a neutral coffee table or lamp table. Again, white is extremely versatile for your lounge and dining areas and when combined with a black lounge, this creates a stark contrast and a stunning edge.

Office
Creating a clutter free office or study environment doesn’t mean large steel cabinets to stuff papers in. Get organised with some simple storage solutions that allow you to focus on the more important things in life. Add some photo frames, a subtle lamp so you can see clearly and even a plant or some fresh flowers to lighten your room up and make it a place in the house to enjoy!

So use these tips to create a great new look for less! If you are looking to update your home decor with some new furniture, or outdoor furniture, make sure you see what Super A Mart has to offer for furniture and homewares.

 

When it comes to finding work as an escort, whether you are male or female, gay or straight, you can decide to work for an escort agency, or join the ranks of the independent escorts, or indies. Which you should choose is very much a personal decision, but you need to take into account the pros and cons of each carefully before starting work.

If you are new to the business then it might be a good idea to work for an agency, even if only for a while, so that you can become accustomed to the ins and outs of the escort business. This will also give you the chance to talk to other escorts employed by the agency, and benefit from sharing their experiences.

The Advantages of Working for an Agency

There is more to working as an escort than many people assume when they first begin, and it can be helpful to have someone else to look after some things for you, while you find your feet. For example, the agency will handle the advertising, will screen potential clients, will manage your diary for you, and will take care of booking hotel rooms and arranging transport, when needed.

Perhaps most essentially for many escorts, the agency provides a safety net as they know where you are and what you are doing at any given moment, and the client is very aware of this. This provides you with a significant level of protection, and with a backup team to call on if you fall into trouble.

Speaking of trouble, the law also plays a significant part in many escort’s lives, and the degree to which it affects you will hinge on where you are working, and how you are operating your business. Many escort agencies have been around for a long time, and are very familiar with what you and cannot do. This again can be enough to stop you unintentionally running into problems.

The Disadvantages of Working for an Agency

An escort agency is the same as any other business, and some are very well run while others are poorly run, and may even simply exploit their escorts without a care for anything other than the profit the business can make. For this reason, you need to do your homework and make sure you know exactly what kind of agency you are joining.

While an agency will take care of much of the background work for you, such as advertising, client checks and arranging appointments, they will also ask certain things from you in return. For example, they may ask you to be ready for work between certain hours each day, and decide how much time off you can have each week. They may also dictate where you must be when you are not working, perhaps letting you go home, as long as they can contact you on the phone, or requiring you to be available in the agency’s office.

The agency is also in the business of making money and does this typically by taking a cut of the fees paid by the client for providing him or her with an escort. Fees can be large, especially in major cities where it is not uncommon for clients to pay several hundred dollars an hour for an escort. You will need to look thoroughly at the financial arrangements required by different agencies and choose what is, and what is not, acceptable to you.

The Benefits of Working as an Independent Escort

Private escorts are very much their own bosses, choosing for themselves when they work, who they accept as clients, and what they are prepared to do. In effect you are enjoying all of the benefits, including the financial benefits, of being self employed and, for many people, these benefits often overtake any disadvantages.

The Disadvantages of Working as an Independent Escort

Working for yourself means that you will have to handle everything yourself, including such things as advertising, checking out prospective clients, booking hotel rooms, arranging for transport, and indeed confronting anything else that comes up. This can be a lot of work at first, but much of this routine work becomes easier as time goes on. One thing that you have to deal with though, and which will never become irrevelant, are the risks that come along with escort work.

Like it or not, escort work can certainly be very dangerous, and you must not only be constantly wary, but must take positive steps to care for yourself. The list of precautions you need to take is far too extensive to explain them all here, but will include such things as guaranteeing that any room you use with a client has an emergency exit that you can use, and being positive that someone knows where you are, and that the client is aware of this fact. Convincing yourself that this is a safe enough area and that nothing is going to happen to you does not work, and safety needs to be the main concern on the list of things to think about for independent escorts.

On Balance

As with any job there are both good and bad points to being an escort, and this is deifnitely one job that you need to go into with a wary mindset. That said, independent escorts can enjoy a very nice lifestyle if they get it right, and the job can be good fun if you have the right personality for it, take the time to understand what you are doing, and set your business up properly.

 

Are you dreading your next power bill? Starting to worry about how the increases in electricity costs are going to affect you. Well you’re not alone, so here is what you can do to reduce your anxiety and your bills.

Most of the time simple and easy common sense measures can cut hundreds of dollars off your bills just by following these steps.

Top Ten Ways to Reduce Your Bills FOR FREE

1. Most people do not realise how much electricity a simple light bulb could be adding to the cost of their electricity bills. Turning off lights when you exit a room will make a significant difference.

2. Try to avoid using the clothes dryer, if the weather is bad purchase a clothes rank that you can use inside.

3. If going on holidays, turn off your electric hot water system at the meter board to avoid the system constantly heating up water when it’s not being used.

4. If you have a peak smart enabled air conditioner you can connect your air-conditioning unit to Tariff 33 – which provides a guaranteed 18 hours of electricity at tariff 33 rates. You may not be able to turn on the system on during peak times, but this could be a good compromise to still enjoy your heating/cooling system without costing the earth. Energex are currently offering $250 reward for split system (peak smart enabled) and $500 reward for ducted systems (peak smart enabled). To see whether your air conditioner is eligible go to the Energex website.

5. An old inefficient pool pump could be costing you up to $640 annually to run on tariff 11. By connect your pool pump to Tariff 33 (if possible) could save you hundreds off your bill. Energex are currently offering a $250 reward for connecting your pool pump to Tariff 33.

6. Turn off additional refrigerators. Have a good think about how much you really use the other fridge. If it’s only for the occasional party switch it off in-between time or if it is to store extra food think whether you really need to stock pile this much as you could be paying a fortune for “just in case you need it”.

7. When running your air conditioner set the temperature to 23 degrees in Summer, as every degree below this will cost you 10% more in running costs (eg. Running at 20 degrees will cost you 30% more than running it at 23 degrees) Or to save more open windows for ventilation rather than turning on the air conditioner in summer time.

8. Use cold water to wash your clothes. With the many washing detergents available today that are made for cold water washing it makes sense to use these rather using your electricity to heat up the water.

9. Once the weather starts to cool down, remember to close any windows that have been left open, use a throw blanket to snuggle up and keep warm whilst watching TV and get out the ugg boots. . If you do turn on the heater, keep the heat in the room you’re in by closing the door.

10. Using low flow showerheads in your shower usually consume less energy and provide the same amount of comfort.

All these free suggestions will reduce your energy usage and your power bills but they do take self discipline and children are often the worst offenders in leaving everything turned on. So if you don’t want to comprise on life style you can still reduce your bills by purchasing energy saving products such as a solar hot water system, solar power system, led lighting, skylights and monitoring systems. If you’d like to find out more visit www.anyenergy.com.au

 

After having done all the required research, you’re now ready to begin searching for the right property.

This is where things get really exciting. You need to keep your wits about you, as choosing a property is critical.

When you take your researcher’s hat off and put your buyer’s hat on, what you’re looking for is potential for renovation.

You need to assess each property not only on where it’s at right now, but what it can be once you’ve done your magic to it.

Your main consideration is the state of the property. You’re searching for a place rundown, but notutterly derelict (unless you really love a challenge)!Next you will think about the needs and wants of the local market, and whether the place will meet them with optimal improvements.

Finally, you need to consider how far you can take the property.
Some places will only need a quick fix-up to make you a decent profit.
Other properties can be totally transformed, bringing them to the next level and unlocking higher profits.

Roughly speaking, there are three types of properties that attract renovators:The ‘Patch ‘n’ Paint’ means it is a solid property, in good condition structurally but the decor is tired.

It needs fresh paint, carpet, fittings and fixtures, and the garden needs tidying up.
The ‘Fixer-Upper’ will generally be older and rougher than the Patch ‘n’ Paint.
The decor still needs a revamp, but it should also have a kitchen and/or bathroom makeover.
The problem child may have structural problems.

It may have cracks in the walls or need a new roof. Possibly the plumbing or wiring is shot and needs replacing. These problems can be expensive to put right but don’t necessarily add a comparable value.

The ‘Knock-Down’ requires a complete restoration or demolition. These properties often catch the eye of developers, particularly if they’re in a great location, on a large block or have fantastic views. From my experience, the best places to renovate for profit are the ‘Patch ‘n’ Paint’ and the ‘Fixer-Upper’.

The amount of renovation work you should do will depend on your knowledge, skills, experience and contacts, but most people are able to do up these kinds of places without too much trouble.
Plus, they don’t tend to have a high level of risk.

Dealing with structural defectsGenerally, I advise people to avoid properties that need structural work.

You want to spend your renovation budget on improvements that buyers and tenants can see because that’s how you get results.

Spending money repairing defects that are unseen eats into your renovation budget and you may not see a buyer who appreciates quality for some time, therefore your profits will be reduced.

Basically, tenants and buyers expect a property to have good foundations, wiring and plumbing. They won’t pay extra for it, so the extra expenditure to fix the defect doesn’t add any value.

If you do want to make an offer on a property with structural defects you really should get a quote to find out how much it will cost to rectify the problems and factor that into your maximum purchase price.

If the numbers still stack up then go for it. Remember, you can usually negotiate because many buyers will be scared off by the “problems”.

Don’t skimp on inspection reportsMany property investors are tempted to save a few bucks by going without an inspection report when buying a property.

Don’t be tempted! Termite infestations, dodgy wiring, rotten foundations. There are many possibilities of problems with any building that the average person won’t notice.

Any one of these problems can cost you big bucks. You wouldn’t buy a second-hand car for $10,000 without a $250 inspection report, so why purchase a property for several hundred thousand dollars without an inspection report that just costs a a little more? For your peace of mind get the inspections done. For building inspections brisbane, contact Home Inspect today or visit their web site.

Meeting market demandLet’s forget about property for a minute and think about people, because renovating for profit is a people business, not a property business.

That’s because the tenants or buyers of your renovated property are the source of your profits -from either the rent you receive or the profit you make once it’s sold, so to maximise your return you need to develop a property that tenants will rent and buyers want to buy.

That’s the golden rule if you want to profit from renovating houses.

If you intend to keep the property then you need to research your target tenants for the area.
When you match a property to target tenants you’re less likely to have down-time with an empty house, or need to make a reduction in therent just to get people in.

Build a good relationship with property managers and find out what type of properties are desirable in the suburb. Tell them you’re looking at buying an investment property in the area, and ask them what tenants prefer.

What sort of property is needed? What kind rents the quickest?In this suburb do tenants prefer houses or apartments? Do they want one, two, or more bedrooms? Do they require parking or not? You should know these facts before you can make an informed decision on what to buy.

If you intend to sell the property once you’ve renovated it, the same principle applies but now you must consider the wants and needs of buyers rather than tenants.

While there are some similarities, there are differences you should cater for.

Finally, although there will be some features of the property you can improve, some features, such as the location and aspect, etc, are fixed.
You can do a first class renovation, but if the property backs onto railway tracks you can expect to trouble renting and selling it.

That’s why selection of a property is so critical. I always say, you can always improve a property, but you can’t improve its location.

 

The most obvious problems that people experience regarding smaller homes are to do with not having enough places to put things. Whether you are living in an apartment until you can afford something bigger, or downsizing to a smaller home after the children have flown the coop, take the time to have a thorough clear-out. Be determined and keep only what you really need and love.

Depending on your situation, you may find that your present circumstances means and entire category of possessions is made redundant. If you don’t have a garden now, for example, you will not need to keep much in the way of gardening equipment.

Get rid of anything that is damaged beyond repair or past its sell-by date. This applies as much to basic supplies as to equipment and books.

Dispose of any items you don’t like. Be determined and consider this a positive action -guilt and other misplaced feelings can stand in the way of letting things go.

Get rid of items that you don’t have any use for any more, like sports or leisure equipment that you used for an activity that you no longer do.

Is your wardrobe bulging? Many people only wear about 20 per cent of the clothes they own. Pare down your wardrobe to the items of clothing that you actually wear on a regular basis.

Get rid of duplicate items.
Review your domestic correspondence and get rid of any old bills, documents and instruction manuals that are not current.

Create More Space
Creating a new room from an unused attic is a good way of increasing your floor area.
Head height is an important thing to consider -at least half the converted space should have a height of 2.3m. At least one window should be installed, preferably one that opens. Other options include skylights that sit flush with the roof, or dormers that project outwards.

If you want to use the space on a regular basis, you might want a permanent stairway of some kind.
Structural work may also be required, including doubling floor joists to strengthen them, and a number of rules apply to do with fire regulations and means of access. You may also require planning permission, particularly if you will be altering the external appearance of your house from the street.

Basement conversions are increasingly popular, although they can be expensive and disruptive to carry out, and a lot depends on existing ground conditions. If you have a full or semi-basement, it’s less problematic to devote the entire area to storage rather than living, provided it is not damp or at risk of flooding. It is wise to pack items in waterproof, sturdy, containers with lids. Be sure to label and keep a record of what is stored there.

For storage Enoggera and storage North Brisbane, contact Everton Self Storage Brisbane.

 

If you are looking for a house cleaning company, the best place to get started would be by asking your friends, colleagues and neighbors whether they can recommend some cleaning service that they might have used in the past. However, it is possible that no one in your circle has used a professional cleaning service before. In this case, it can be challenging to hire a cleaning company which can do a high quality job at a competitive price.

The following 6 tips will help you evaluate house cleaning companies and hire the company that is best suited for your purpose:

1. Speak With Multiple House Cleaning Companies

Make sure that you request detailed quotations from more than one cleaning company. This will allow you to compare all the services and determine which company will give you the best value for your money. If you have any special cleaning requirements, make sure that all the companies provide an estimate for that too.

Speaking with these companies will also help you evaluate their professionalism to a certain extent. Now, a professional appearance during a sales call doesn’t guarantee that you will experience the same professionalism in their service. However, an unprofessional treatment during the sales phase should help you rule out a number of house cleaning companies that are likely to be a waste of your time.

2. Check The Company Background

There are many ways in which you can check the cleaning company’s background and service history. The best way would be to speak with the company’s past and existing clients to know what their experience with the company has been like.

Companies who do a good job and take pride in their work won’t mind putting you in touch with some of their customers. However companies who have a low customer satisfaction rate might not want to do this. This helps you eliminate some more cleaning companies that may not be right for you.

You can also do a quick check on the Better Business Bureau (BBB) to check for any complaints or feedback for a house cleaning company you are considering. Not all cleaning companies are members of the BBB but it doesn’t take long to perform this check.

3. Check For Insurance

Beware of hiring a cleaning company which doesn’t have insurance covering its clients’ houses. And don’t just take the salesperson’s word that the company has an adequate insurance cover. You can request the cleaning company to have their insurance company send a copy of the certificate of insurance to you by fax or mail.

4. Get A List Of Services That Will Be Performed

Be aware of all the services that will be included in the package. The last thing you want is to realize that something that you wanted isn’t included in the cleaning package and you have to pay extra for that. It’s best if the list of services, frequency of servicing and other details are included in the contract to avoid any future misunderstanding.

5. Cleaning Equipment & Supplies Requirement

Establish an understanding with the house cleaning company about who will be responsible for the cleaning equipment and supplies. Some companies insist on using their own equipment and supplies while other companies don’t mind using the equipment and supplies of the client.

6. Consider All The Fees While Making A Decision

Apart from the advertised cleaning service fees, a house cleaning company may charge additional fees for things like schedule change, contract cancellation, etc. Discuss these fees and read the contract to avoid any unpleasant surprises down the road.

These tips can help you create some sort of a checklist which you can use to narrow down on the house cleaning company that best suits your purpose and budget. Spending a little time upfront in researching the cleaning companies can save you a lot of time, money and headache down the road.

For house cleaning Brisbane and bond cleaning Brisbane, make sure you talk to Family Clean.

 

Companies which offer promotional products to their clients and staff are employing a clever technique to promote their business and increase productivity. Branded gifts are effective tools for marketing a company, plus they also serve to gain the loyalty of clients and staff. Enhancing the trust of staff in a company can be an efficient technique to develop cohesion in the team and consequently increase productivity. And the potential doesn’t stop there, as it will instil brand loyalty in clients, resulting in repeat custom and enhanced profitability.

Staff who feel valued by superiors are motivated to give their best to help the company succeeds. By offering promotional products, companies display that they indeed value their staff and clients, and with a tremendous range of gifts to choose between, they can be specifically chosen to highlight individual preferences. However, companies should not only strive to please clients and staff, but also to promote their business. Therefore, it is imperative that branded gifts are offered that advertise their products or services.

The array of promotional gifts is enormous, including items such as:

Office Supplies and Desk Accessories

Desk calendars, organisers, organisers, and even decorative photo frames are commonly given, while supplies such as pen sets, pen sets, and wristbands are also popular. These durable promotional products will promote the company for a long time, and ensuring the company logo or a catchy message is included will magnetise new customers to the businesses.

Branded Corporate Gifts

Gifts like t-shirts, key-rings, hats or notepads offer good results too. Companies can use these products to attract potential clients in big events such as trade shows or conferences. In addition, they are good incentive gifts for new employees who will feel welcomed and will more easily integrate into the team. Branded gift sets are great marketing products because people tend to use them in their day-to-day activities.

Rewards and Privileges

Apart from functional gifts, a company may invest in gift coupons, nogotiating with other local businesses to offer discounted rates to their clients and staff. This enhances the company’s profile in the community and will attract other clients, as well as increasing employee or customer loyalty.

You can order a variety of promotional products from local shops and via online sources.

Enjoy the marketing power that promotional products offer.

 

The lower back is critical to our function as a human being. It provides structural support as well as enabling movement in all directions. The lower back is primarily responsible for forward and backward movements and also allows sideways bending and rotation. Another critical function of the lower back is to protect the tissues of the nervous system, spinal column as well as the organs of the pelvis and stomach. As such an essential aspect of our lives it is also susceptible to a number of injuries that cause us pain. The top 8 most common causes are outlined below.

8. Bone Injuries
Fractures of the lumbar spine usually occur after a traumatic event such as a fall or motor vehicle accident. If the fracture is unstable, risk of damage to the spinal cord and permanent paralysis is extremely high. Patients are stabilised and immobilised for long periods. If the fracture is stable patients are treated with rest and pain relief. In some cases people with osteoporosis, or those taking medication such as cortisone long term, can be susceptible to fractures even with minimal stress on the spine. This may cause a crush fracture where the vertebrae loses some of its height. Pain can be severe and is often aggravated by movement.

7. Congenital Inherited Conditions
Some of the common inherited conditions that cause lower back pain include scoliosis which is a sideways curve of the spine, sometimes caused when one leg is shorter than the other (functional scoliosis). You can also get structural scoliosis which is a fixed sideways curve often due to unknown factors, more common in women. Another common congenital cause of lower back pain is a forward slip of the lower lumbar vertebrae on top of the sacrum. This is referred to as spondylolisthesis, which in some cases can be associated with fractures of the joining bones in the vertebrae and is known as a pars defect.

6. Bone Encroachment
Sometimes when the bony canal of the spinal cord and the spaces that the nerves exit can be narrowed by bone spurs or other soft tissues. This can cause sciatic pain which radiates down the leg. Often pain from narrowing of the spinal canal gets worse with walking and improves with rest.

5. Arthritis
Arthritic changes and inflammation can affect the lumbar vertebrae as well as sciatic joints and can commonly cause lower back pain and stiffness, which is often worse in the morning. Degeneration can also affect the disc and is known as sponydolosis. This shows up on x-rays as narrowing of the lumbar disc joint space.

4. Lumbar Radiculopathy – Damage to a Disc
When the disc is injured or weakens over time the outer rim can bulge or rupture (herniate), putting pressure on the spinal cord and/or the nerves exiting the bones. This can produce both local low back pain as well as sciatica characterised by pain down the leg. It can also be associated with pins and needles, numbness and weakness. In more serious cases, patients may experience problems with bladder and bowel function. They should seek medical attention immediately.

3. Nerve Irritation
The nerves exiting the bones of the lower back can be irritated by pressure from bone, soft tissue, as well as inflammation. Pain can be both local, as well as radiating down the leg.

2. Tendon and Ligament Strains
The soft tissues supporting and connecting the bones of the lower back can be stretched or injured in a number of ways. Commonly there is some sort of microscopic tear of varying degree which is often caused by an acute injury or overuse.

1. Muscle Strain
The most common form of lower back pain is of muscular origin. Muscle pain can be brought on by poor posture, overuse, improper use, sustained positions and even trauma. It is so common because not only is it the primary cause of most lower back pain, it is a significant component of all the other causes of lower back pain. This is because with arthritic changes, structural changes, such as curvature of the lower back, disc disease or even ruptures will all sensitise the muscles. This is why it is essential to understand muscle pain specifically, to learn strategies for prevention as well as self-management long term.

If you, your friend or family member suffer from back pain please do not hesitate to contact one of our friendly Camp Hill physiotherapists on 07 3847 8040. Our Camp Hill physios can also provide treatment from our Camp Hill Physiotherapy practice in Brisbane.

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